Cognitive dysfunction in depression

Depression is a highly prevalent disorder. The lifetime prevalence for major depressive disorder is 6.5-21%.1-3 Many depressed patients do not respond fully to currently available therapies,4-6 and residual symptoms such as fatigue and impaired concentration are common, even in patients considered to be in remission.7

The architecture of cognitive dysfunction in depression is very different for every individual

Cognitive dysfunction in depression is a major social and economic burden, yet its effective identification and management are currently inadequate.4,8,9 It is highly prevalent during both major depressive episodes and remission,10 however, its frequency and impact are not always appreciated or understood by many physicians.The THINC® programme was established to put cognitive dysfunction in depression under the spotlight, and the THINC Task Force was formed to lead this.

Roger McIntyre Cognitive Dysfunction
  1. Bromet E, Andrade LH, Hwang I, Sampson NA, Alonso J, De Girolamo G, De Graaf R, Demyttenaere K, Hu C, Iwata N, Karam AN, Kaur J, Kostyuchenko S, Lepine JP, Levinson D, Matschinger H, Mora MEM, Browne MO, Posada-Villa J, Viana MC et al. Cross-national epidemiology of DSM-IV major depressive episode. BMC Med 2011; 9: 90.
  2. Hasin DS, Goodwin RD, Stinson FS, Grant BF. Epidemiology of major depressive disorder: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcoholism and Related Conditions. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005; 62: 1097-1106
  3. Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Merikangas KR, Walters EE. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005: 62: 593-602
  4. Greer TL, Kurian BT, Trivedi MH. Defining and measuring functional recovery from depression. CNS Drugs 2010; 24: 267-284
  5. McClintock SM, Husain MM, Wisniewski SR, Nierenberg AA, Stewart JW, Trivedi MH, Cook I, Morris D, Warden D, Rush AJ. Residual symptoms in depressed outpatients who respond by 50% but do not remit to antidepressant medication. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2011; 31: 180-186
  6. McIntyre RS, O’Donovan C. The human cost of not achieving full remission in depression. Can J Psychiatry 2004; 49 (Suppl 1): 10S-16S
  7. Zimmerman M, Martinez J, Attiullah N, Friedman M, Toba C, Boerescu DA. Symptom differences between depressed outpatients who are in remission according to the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale who do and do not consider themselves to be in remission. J Affect Disord 2012; 142: 77-81
  8. European Depression Association. Impact and burden of depression. 2014. Available at: Last updated 2014. Accessed 06 June 2015.
  9. McIntyre RS, Cha DS, Soczynska JK, Woldeyohannes HO, Gallaugher LA, Kudlow P, Alsuwaidan M, Baskaran A. Cognitive deficits and function outcomes in major depressive disorder: determinants, substrates, and treatment interventions. Depress Anxiety 2013; 30: 515-527
  10. Conradi HJ, Ormel J, de Jonge P. Presence of individual (residual) symptoms during depressive episodes and periods of remission: a 3-year prospective study. Psychol Med 2011; 41: 1165-1174
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